There is a growing awareness in Western defence forces that operation planning must evolve, making it necessary to understand the environment in its totality. This will require close cooperation across all possible domains both within and between countries. How do military commanders envisage their place and role within this realm? What will their requirements be for the information preparation of the environment they will be operating in? Developing practical ways to integrate inﬂuence activities into combined arms planning and assessment will improve the effectiveness of combined and joint operations. How must commanders change their strategic communication approach to have an effect in their operating environment?